In late 1910, a lethal plague began spreading within the northeast reaches of China, reaching the massive metropolis of Harbin. Tens of hundreds of individuals coughed up blood; their pores and skin pruned and turned purple. They all died.
This outbreak despatched the Qing authorities right into a tailspin: They didn’t know what sickness was inflicting these deaths, not to mention methods to management it. So they introduced in probably the greatest skilled medical doctors in Asia on the time, Dr. Wu Lien-Teh. After performing autopsies, Dr. Wu discovered Yersinia pestis, a bacterium just like the one which had triggered bubonic plague within the West. He acknowledged Manchuria’s plague as a respiratory illness and urged everybody, particularly well being care professionals and regulation enforcement, to put on masks.
Chinese authorities, heeding his name, coupled masking with stringent lockdowns enforced by the police. Four months after the physician was summoned, the plague ended. Although usually neglected in Western nations, Dr. Wu is acknowledged in world historical past as a pioneer of public well being, serving to to vary the course of a respiratory illness unfold by droplets that would have devastated China within the early 20th century, and maybe unfold far past its borders.
While the Chinese of that period complied with these methods, public well being professionals within the United States and different Western nations have struggled to get folks to hearken to them throughout the Covid-19 pandemic. China, too, bumped into challenges early on, however the nation’s institutional reminiscence from earlier viral outbreaks helped flip the tide. And as many Americans abandon masking, push to revive normality in locations the place dangers of an infection stay excessive and hesitate to get vaccinated, some public well being specialists have appeared to Dr. Wu’s success, in search of classes on dealing with not solely Covid, but additionally future epidemics.
But some students who’ve studied Dr. Wu imagine the flawed lesson is being drawn from his legacy: A single particular person can’t save a nation. “We can’t always wait for historic figures,” stated Alexandre White, a medical sociologist and historian at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. Instead, he and different specialists say nations just like the United States must reckon with their inequitable and fraught public well being techniques to allow them to higher deal with well being threats.
Dr. Wu was born to Chinese immigrants on March 10, 1879, on Penang, an island off the coast of Peninsular Malaysia, as Ngoh Lean Tuck. (He later modified his title to Wu Lien-Teh, typically spelled Wu Liande)
When he was 17, Dr. Wu received a scholarship to check at Emmanuel College in England and stayed to check medication at St Mary’s Hospital in London. As a part of his coaching, he studied infectious ailments on the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and the Pasteur Institute in Paris.
By 1903, when he returned to Malaysia, Dr. Wu was one of many earliest folks of Chinese descent to graduate as a medical physician from the West.
In May 1908, Dr. Wu and his spouse went to China, the place he was appointed vice director of the Imperial Army College close to Beijing, making him well-placed to analyze when folks started dying from an unknown illness in Manchuria.
Dr. Wu was getting into a spot the place specialists like him have been briefly provide and urgently wanted. At the time, China was in political turmoil: Russia and Japan have been vying for management over Manchuria and each noticed the plague as a possibility to advance their objectives. Western nations on the time largely seen China as “the sick man of the East,” a rustic overburdened by illness, opium habit and an ineffective authorities.
Historians who research China say the federal government accepted and internalized that label. But when Dr. Wu stepped in, he had the social and political clout to be a catalyst for change.
Dr. Wu is usually heralded because the “man behind the mask,” an inventor of utilizing face coverings to stop the unfold of respiratory sicknesses. Much of this narrative was by his personal design in his autobiography, stated Marta Hanson, a historian of drugs additionally at Johns Hopkins. Previous iterations of the masks existed in different nations, and a few Chinese have been already donning Japanese-style respirators earlier than Dr. Wu arrived in Harbin.
What is true is that Dr. Wu launched and inspired an concept born within the West to the Chinese public. The masks he designed was based mostly on ventilators from the Victorian period: padding layers of cotton and gauze, with strings in order that the person might safe it to their head. The masks was low cost and simple to fabricate.
In addition to masks, officers enforced a strict cordon sanitaire, one other methodology that dates again no less than to the 1800s when French officers sought to include the unfold of Yellow Fever. Travel was restricted, authorities officers have been instructed to shoot anybody attempting to flee, and cops went door to door, searching for anybody who had died from plague. In an echo of a few of these strategies final 12 months throughout the combat in opposition to Covid, China strictly curtailed transportation round Wuhan, and folks wanted permission from authorities to go away their houses.
The spring after the plague was introduced underneath management in China, Dr. Wu hosted the International Plague Conference. Respirators and masks have been a focus of dialog, and plenty of Western students believed that they might successfully forestall plague.
While masks became a political flash point in the United States and elsewhere throughout the Spanish flu pandemic, the concept of utilizing them persevered in China, and gauze masks turned an vital instrument within the political agenda of the Nationalist Party when it took over in 1928. Public well being officers really useful all residents put on gauze masks in public areas throughout outbreaks of meningitis or cholera.
By then, masks turned a logo of hygienic modernity, contributing to the larger acceptance of mask-wearing in China right this moment, Dr. Hanson stated. In the early 21st century, the SARS epidemic as soon as once more drove dwelling the need of masks and different public well being interventions in China and different East Asian nations.
In 1930, Dr. Wu was appointed to go a brand new nationwide well being group. But after the Japanese invaded northern China in 1937, and his dwelling in Shanghai was shelled, Dr. Wu sought refuge in his native Malaysia. He completed his profession there as a household physician, and died in 1960, at 80 years previous.
Medical historians and public well being specialists have a couple of theories to clarify Dr. Wu’s success in persuading Chinese authorities to manage the plague.
An element that possible helped Dr. Wu, medical historians say, is that he made masks inexpensive and accessible. An identical method was used throughout the coronavirus pandemic in Hong Kong, which supplied each resident a free, reusable masks and put kiosks in public to distribute them.
Countries which have supplied important assist to their residents to adjust to public well being mandates throughout this pandemic have usually fared higher than locations that left the identical measures as much as people, Dr. White of Johns Hopkins stated.
And the extra inexpensive and accessible public well being measures are to undertake, the extra possible they’re to be adopted, stated Kyle Legleiter, the senior director of coverage advocacy at The Colorado Health Foundation.
Another issue that may have contributed to Dr. Wu’s success in China can be the reverence residents and officers had for him as a determine of authority, Yanzhong Huang, a senior fellow for world well being on the Council on Foreign Relations, stated.
In some methods, Dr. Anthony Fauci, the chief medical adviser on Covid to President Biden and a outstanding public well being determine for the reason that 1980s, served in a task just like the one Dr. Wu performed in China, Dr. Huang stated. But, his message maybe didn’t all the time get by way of as a result of Americans are extra polarized of their political identities and beliefs.
Dr. Legleiter added that public well being messaging solely penetrates if the general public identifies with or trusts that determine of authority.
“An individual person is a stand-in for a broader set of institutions or systems that they’re speaking on the behalf of,” Dr. Legleiter stated. Those who lean conservative, as an illustration, could put Dr. Fauci and different scientists within the class of “the elites.” As such, they’re extra prone to flout public well being insurance policies that such authority figures promote, and adjust to proclamations from people they determine with probably the most.
Others say that public well being is intrinsically tied to the legitimacy of the state selling it. At the flip of the 20th century, China was in misery, Dr. Hanson stated. Dr. Wu helped carry China out of a tumultuous interval, and the enforcement of public well being measures gave the nation extra legitimacy.
Similarly, as a result of the present pandemic has laid naked shortcomings within the public well being techniques within the United States, Britain and different Western nations, some specialists imagine it may be a catalyst for change.
“Since the mid-19th century, the West has generally seen its ability to control infectious disease as a marker of their civilizational superiority over much of the rest of the world,” Dr. White stated. While China was seen because the sick man of the world then, some commentators in China now try to model the United States with that label.
Ruth Rogaski, a medical historian at Vanderbilt University who makes a speciality of learning the Qing dynasty and fashionable China, believes that the coronavirus disaster equally affords a possibility for reflection, which may be very motivating.
“Epidemics can serve as inflection points,” Dr. Rogaski stated. “Opportunities to rethink, retool and even revolutionize approaches to health.”